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...18-20 July 2002 - Showroom Cinema - Sheffield - UK



Professor Roy Armes
Middlesex University, London

Cultural Hybridity and Maghreb Cinema
The state has had a key role to play in African cinema since its inception. This is self-evident during the colonial period, when many of the key structures which shaped post-independence film making were set up - initially to serve the propaganda ends of the colonial system. In most parts of Africa - especially during the 1960s and 1970s - 'national' cinemas were synonymous with state cinemas.

More recently, however, it is foreign governments and their policies which have had a key impact on many aspects of African film making. Taking the specific example of North African cinemas (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia), this paper looks at the ways in which film making in the 1990s and 2000s have been influenced by French policies, to such an extent that any notion of a 'national' cinema has virtually vanished. Hybridity rules.

It is worth noting that the shaping influence of French government policies has a long history: as early as 1955, when Paulin Soumanou Vieyra emerged as the first African graduate from IDHEC, he was prevented from filming in his native Senegal under the terms of a decree introduced by the French colonial minister Laval in 1934.

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Professor Tino Balio
Professor, Department of Communication Arts, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Executive Director, Arts Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison

The U.S. Art Film Market in the 1960s
The art film market in the United States flowered in the aftermath of World War II, nurtured by successive waves of imports from Italy, Great Britain, France, Scandinavia, and Japan. Distribution was handled by dozens of small independent companies operating out of New York who battled censorship boards, the Production Code Administration, and pressure groups to reach audiences. Although foreign films won film festival awards and received attention in the national press and prestigious magazines, they made barely a dent in the box office. However, when films such as Roger Vadim's And God Created Women, Jules Dassin's Never on Sunday, and Federico Fellini's La Dolce Vita broke U.S. box office records for foreign imports, Hollywood took notice.

This paper will analyze the impact of foreign art films on Hollywood inthe 1960s. By art films is meant English- and foreign-language films produced abroad and exhibited mainly in art theaters in the U.S. The growing popularity of such films in conjunction with the tremendous social, political, and cultural upheavals that were taking place in the United States changed the American film industry in the following ways:

1. Studios began investing in indigenous foreign-film production in an attempt to absorb promising film makers.

2. Hollywood used foreign films to cater to the youth audience that had adopted film as its art form of choice.

3. Film content became more adult in orientation, leading to the replacement of the Production Code by the Rating System.

Foreign-language films reached their highwater mark in the U.S. when both I Am Curious (Yellow) and Z broke out of the art market and set new box office records in 1969. The 'New Hollywood' that emerged in the early 1970s had little interest in offbeat films, art films, or even foreign films that werehits in their own countries. Understanding that only a few a year captured most of the box office dollar, Hollywood stuck to the tried and true after 1970 and concentrated on making big-budget pictures aimed at youth audiences that were capable of being exploited in all the major markets worldwide, on television, and in so-called leisure time 'profit centers'.

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Heather Beaton
Goldsmiths College

Too many solitudes? Globalization and the challenge of communications regulation - lessons from Canada

The multi-channel and multi-platform mediascapes of the 21st century are transforming notions of cultural identity and challenging traditional approaches to national media policy and regulation. In Canada, the grey market reception of unregulated satellite broadcasting signals from the United States is an example of how global communications technologies are challenging national communication policies. Broadcasting policy in Canada will likely continue to be challenged on a number of fronts, from the pressures of globalization, the commodification of cultural practices, Canada's obligations under international trade agreements, to the changing preferences of Canadian consumers. In the global trade environment, what role is there for domestic communications policy? Is there still room, within current national strategies directed at supporting the global competitiveness of indigenous cultural industries, for policies directed at fostering platforms for cultural identity or for promoting cultural diversity? This paper will look at the regulatory complexities involved in protecting national and local culture in an era of free trade and globalization, particularly in the broadcasting context. It will offer a brief comparison between Canadian, British and European Union audiovisual policies in the era of global trade.

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Marion Benjamin and Lindsay Barrett
Centre for Comparative Media, University of Western Sydney

At the edge of empire
In 1927 the Australian government conducted a Royal Commission into the Moving Picture Industry. The officially articulated concerns that led to the Royal Commission into this new media form were largely economic, but the underlying substance of the inquiry was largely cultural. Indeed, these key social categories, the economic and the cultural, are rarely independent of each other, and the early Australian film industry provides an excellent case in point: local production and distribution were increasingly being dominated by the Americans, and at stake was Australia's already tenuous grasp on an independent identity as a 'white' nation at the 'edge of empire'. A key outcome of the 1927 inquiry was the censorship of films for indigenous audiences, a practice that continued for the next thirty years. Decisions taken about films suitable for so-called native races were blatantly political, and they included the proscribing of any films depicting the uprising of coloured peoples against whites, or those depicting 'inappropriate' relations between white women and black men. At the same time though, this censorship regime paralleled another, more informal system of cultural control or engineering, as British films imported into Australia were increasingly criticised for their failure to uphold 'traditional' British and Empire values. At the periphery of the empire it seems, the upholding of the values and civilities of the motherland had acquired an urgency far greater than that found at its centre.

In this paper, we will explore these cultural imperatives and anxieties that determined the shape and form of film and cultural policy in Australia in the early decades of the twentieth century. Australia's film production and distribution industries became, we will argue, a crucial cultural site in which the nation's vision of itself in relation to the British Empire, and the wider world, was both constructed and played out.

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Dr Shu-Ling C Berggreen and Katalin Lustyik
School of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Colorado, Boulder

Is Mulan a cross-dresser? Disney's cultural sensitivity and the exportation of animated stories around the world
Since the 1930s the Walt Disney Company has produced characters, images, and animation that have captivated audiences around the world. Today, Disney has become one of the largest media corporations in the world reaching millions of children and telling or retelling them such classical stories as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and modern tales like The Lion King. The paper analyzes three animated Disney movies, Aladdin, Pocahontas, and Mulan, in order to examine the processes by which stories are selected and developed for the youngest viewers by the company. These Disney animations are based on classical tales from different parts of the world, and as they are redesigned by a professional team of story tellers, and then distributed world wide, a host of questions and dilemmas arise. While Mulan, the first Disney animated movie featuring a Chinese tale, stays relatively true to the original story, it does so without emphasizing some of the fundamental messages with which children in Chinese society grow up: the principle of filial piety, the preservation of family honor, the devotion to one's country and the enormous personal sacrifice for the greater good of society. Some critics, however, completely misinterpreted the story and explained Mulan as a film about a girl who pretends to be a boy, or described the character as a 'cross-dresser'. While Pocahontas is very far from being historically accurate, it is claimed that it teaches valuable messages of environmentalism, harmony, Indian culture and philosophy that outweighs its inaccuracies. Disney also argues that kids can 'discern that these are not real people and that Pocahontas is no documentary'. The questions that this paper also addresses are whether Disney, having ventured away from Mickey Mouse, has a special responsibility to maintain fidelity to the original stories and be culturally 'sensitive'? Also, in today's diverse and multi-cultural audio-visual environment, in what ways have the Disney Company influenced local or indigenous children's cultures around the world?

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Simon Blanchard
Sheffield Hallam University

Challenging 'Free Trade' in Culture - Issues, Problems and Prospects
The last 2 decades has seen the rapid consolidation of a new cadre of giant trans-national corporations in the sphere of media,culture and communications - symbolised by the recent merger of America On Line (AOL) and Time Warner.

On the trade front, this has been accompanied by a dramatic expansion in the scale and scope of cultural commerce, and the emergence in the 1990s of the WTO and the GATS framework - both designed to consolidate and extend this new epoch of 'free trade' in culture.

Nonetheless, despite its proclaimed 'triumph', the 'free market' fundamentalism of the New Right has not gone unchallenged. The second half of the 1990s inaugurated a new wave of resistance to this paradigm, and the beginnings of an international civic agenda of activism and argument about the costs and consequences of this 'New World Order'.

This paper will review the emergence of this alternative agenda,and examine how its concerns and ideas can be brought to bear in the cultural sphere. What are the key intellectual and practical issues at stake? What are the problems and prospects which it must face in elaborating an alternative vision of culture outside the confines of corporate commercial imperatives ? How would this'translate' in terms of trade policy and politics?

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Haim Bresheeth
University of East London

USA vs EU: The Media Wars

The paper examines the cultural, economic and industrial struggle taking part in the last couple of decades between the media production and distribution systems (concentrating on feature films) of North America and the European Union. The paper builds on the understanding of Cultural Imperialism and its mechanisms, established by the work of Said, Hall, Waxman and Mattelart and others, and on work in the area of Political Economy, such as Graham and Murdoch. The paper establishes, based on statistics for the period 1980 -1996, both the trends and mechanisms of the process, and also its likely outcome and its timescale.

While the paper is based on much statistical research and analysis, and uses some graphic representations simplifying the findings for the purpose of clear presentation, the argument is not limited to the political economy arena, and its main argument is concerned with the complex cultural rivalry between the two leading blocs of the West, made even more urgent since the collapse of Communism. This struggle between the (economically at least) monolythic, monolinguistic bloc of the north American continent, and the multilinguistic, multicultural societies of Europe, may well be predetermined, but its twists and turns are far from simple. This is not just a struggle over markets and market share, but also a struggle of cultures. This is a battle between a collection of particular, variable cultures, controlled by established elites with complex histories, against the strong and almost irresistible grip of a newer culture, universal in its simplicity and accessibility, adept at fast expansion, formulaic development, and dependence on continued growth through the benefits of large scale production and distribution. This is not just another battle in the struggle over the huge media markets now unraveling - the South, and the ex-Communist countries - but mainly the first act of the struggle over the direction of the cultural production of the new millenium. How much will the results of this conflict be shaped by the past, and by the identity struggles of recent history, is the research question.

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Michael Chanan
Faculty of Humanities, University of the West of England

Negotiating the exotic in Latin American cinema
Latin America has been one of the primary subjects of the exotic image ever since the Spanish conquest, and cinema has added new dimensions to its representation. It can be said that the very idea of the exotic is a creation of imperialism. In expressing the point of view of the centre towards the periphery, it marks the superiority complex of the conqueror towards the conquered, seen as primitive societies full of strange and unfamiliar features - the stranger the more interesting, as Lukács once observed, speaking of certain 19th century French novels. This paper, which will be illustrated by a range of clips, is less concerned with the construction of the Latin American exotic by foreign cinema, however, than with the need of the Latin American film-maker to negotiate the category of the exotic in the process of representing Latin America from within. This negotiation, which has passed through several stages, can be read as an integral aspect of the identity struggle of the criollo film-maker, which moves through aestheticisation of the exotic, for example in Mexican 'Golden Age' cinema, to its repudiation as a falsification by the new Latin American cinema of the 1960s, or in some cases its parody; to its re-appropriation in the form of magical realism, a tendency far less successful in the cinema than in literature; and most recently its recuperation as a commodity on the world film market.

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Dr Steve Chibnall
Faculty of Humanities, De Montfort University

Rule, Cool, and Ghoul Britannia: Varieties of the British Cinema Export Brand
British cinema has long had a (not entirely deserved) reputation for Anglo-centricity. Known for combining eccentric indigenous taste with authentic social realism, British films have had something of an uneven career in export markets. The problems suffered by the British brand in gaining widespread distribution in the USA have overshadowed a much more successful marketing history in Europe and the countries of 'The Commonwealth'. In recent years, however, a number of British-made (and usually American-backed) products have enjoyed considerable acclaim in The States, and a significant niche market for 'back catalogue' genre films has been established. In 2001, a renewed interest in British cinema among American film buffs was evidenced in a special supplement of Cineaste magazine. So what is the image of the brand at the start of the new century?

This paper outlines the history of British film exports and identifies the changing components of the national cinema's brand image, suggesting that they extend well beyond the familiar notion of 'heritage'.

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Pam Cook
Professor of European Film and Media, School of Modern Languages, University of Southampton

Cultural Exchange and Mmemory in the Archers' I Know Where I'm Going! (1945)
I Know Where I'm Going! was produced during a hiatus in the Archers' career. When the extravagant fantasy A Matter of Life and Death had to be postponed due to the unavailability of Technicolor, Powell and Pressburger produced a simple love story set mainly in Scotland, shot in black and white. Despite its apparently modest scope, I Know Where I'm Going!, made under the J Arthur Rank umbrella at Denham studios, played a significant role in Rank's policy of producing quality prestige pictures for the US market. The film was consciously aimed at Scottish expatriate audiences in America, and part of its project was to provide a nostalgic experience by recreating a mythical, imaginary Scotland, making extensive use of the special effects facilities at Denham.

I Know Where I'm Going!
revolves around a number of cross-cultural encounters, of which the central romance between a materialistic young English woman and an impoverished Scottish laird is only one. My paper will explore the interweaving of different strands of cultural memory throughout the film, focusing on the relationship between the projection of a fictional 'Scotland' and the memories, skills and aspirations of the continental Europeans who formed the nucleus of The Archers. My argument centres on a comparison between FW Murnau's 1927 classic Sunrise and I Know Where I'm Going!, and I shall look at production contexts as well as marketing strategies. I hope to illuminate some of the complex ways in which memory is used in the Archers' film to cross national and cultural boundaries.

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Rayna Denison
Institute of Film Studies, School of American and Canadian Studies, University of Nottingham

No Longer Indigenous: The International Blockbuster
In this paper the blockbuster will reassessed to show it as an international more than an American phenomenon. The blockbuster remains a contentious area in film studies because, like other popularly conceived terms, its exact meaning remains fluid. The blockbuster film has typically been perceived as a creation of the American film industry. However, recent trends in blockbuster filmmaking indicate a more complex relationships between calculated blockbusters and their professed country of origin than has been proffered in academic criticism. An examination of current trends in the production, marketing, distribution and reception of contemporary 'American' blockbuster films is intended to problematise their academic presentation.

Production of recent calculated blockbusters indicates that prohibitive costs are driving American productions to film in locations outside the USA, dislocating them from their geographical point of origin. Similarly, the talent that goes into the creation of these films, whether in terms of their directors, stars or other members of staff, will be shown to include vast numbers of non-Americans. Film marketing too has begun to take on an international feel, as publicity campaigns aim for low cultural discount in order to maximise exportability. In distribution too, the recent inroads into new markets made by America's large studios, for example in the building of chains of multiplex cinemas, offers further incentive for America's large studios to internationalise their film products. Finally, 2001 was a watershed year for calculated blockbuster films made by Americans on British subject matter. The extent to which these American-made films have been re-naturalised will be considered here to indicate whether fan perception still labels blockbuster films 'American' or of in fact we are entering the age of the international blockbuster.

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Dr Terry Flew
Senior Lecturer and Discipline Head of Media Communication, Creative Industries Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia

Standards, Culture, Services: Tradeable Television and Changing Conceptions of Broadcasting Policy

This paper will look at changing conceptions of the role of broadcasting policy in relation to the extent to which television programs and formats become internationally tradeable commodities. In emergent broadcasting systems, the principal focus of broadcasting policy is upon standards, both in the technical sense of how to deliver broadcasting to homes, and the moral sense of how to promote programming that will 'improve' society. As broadcasting systems mature, and as the import and export of programs and formats becomes more significant, culture becomes increasingly important as a shaper of policy and regulation. Locally-produced broadcasting content is increasingly seen as a marker of national identity and cultural citizenship and, as the ambit of cultural policy is extended from the arts into popular media, support for local content development becomes a significant element of government media policy. As convergent media and digitisation promote a globalised, post-broadcasting era, a services model becomes the framer of broadcasting regulation, and the focus shifts towards how to make markets work better and facilitate technological innovation. The GATS agreement is particularly important in this regard, as it promotes both a discursive and a legal shift in the conception of television programs as internationally tradeable forms of audiovisual content, opening up the question of how one can continue to speak of television as a significant element of a national culture.

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Dr Sheldon Hall
Course Leader, BA (Hons.) Film Studies, School of Cultural Studies, Sheffield Hallam University

Internationalism and the Epics of Samuel Bronston

Between 1959 and 1964, samuel Bronston produced six big-budget spectaculars from his studios in Spain, financing them by pre-selling distribution rights throughout the world. These six films - John Paul Jones, King of Kings, El Cid, 55 Days at Peking, The Fall of the Roman Empire and Circus World (aka The Magnificent Showman) - are often listed as 'runaway' Hollywood pictures, but they should more properly be regarded as wholly international productions, funded by more than one country, conceived with a world audience in mind, and recurrently addressing isues of national self-definition and international union and cooperation. Bronston, born in Bessarabia, was formerly a European-based distribution agent for the American majors, then an independent producer in Hollywood, and he worked briefy for the Vatican before establishing his Spanish-based company and building a lavish studio complex outside Madrid, which bankruptcy rapidly forced him to sell. This paper explores the significance of his work as a model of international co-production in the 1960s, the commercial heyday of the widescreen blockbuster which Bronston helped define and, with El Cid and The Fall of the Roman Empire, bring to a creative peak.

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Andrew Higson
Professor of Film Studies, School of English and American Studies, University of East Anglia

Crossing over: exporting indigenous heritage to the USA
This paper will offer a case study of the exportability of the heritage film, one of the most visible production trends of 'British' cinema during the 1980s and 1990s. These quality costume dramas with an English period setting draw on the conventions of the literary adaptation, the biopic and the womanís film. They are pre-eminently middlebrow cultural products, celebrated for, amongst other things, the way that they present ëindigenousí characters and stories and reproduce heritage decor, costumes, properties and landscapes. Yet the commercial viability of this production trend depended crucially on the ability of producers to secure adequate exhibition in the lucrative US market, and therefore to attract the interest of American distributors. The companies that handled such films were typically the larger independents, the mini-majors or indie-majors, or the in-house 'specialty' or 'classics' labels of the majors themselves. Many of the heritage films were produced and marketed as crossover films, drawing on the traditions of both the mainstream studio film and the art film and straddling both multiplex circuits and the specialised art-house sector. These films are thus compromise products in several senses. As middlebrow films, they fall between the mass market and elite culture. As crossover films, they fall between the mainstream and the art-house. And as 'British' films produced with more than an eye on the export market, they foreground the complex hybridity and exportability of 'indigenous' culture. Although the industry perceive them as niche products for a niche market, the exploitation of that nationally specific niche should be understood as a vital component in the globalisation of the media industry. The case study thus raises important issues to do with the relationships between indigeneity and exportability, and between the local or niche product and the global aspirations of the major players in the media economy.

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May Adadol Ingawanij
London Consortium, Birkbeck College, University of London

The bourgeoisification of a 'vulgar' popular cultural form: Nang Nak and Thai cinema's current 'renaissance'
In 1999, Thailand bucked the global trend when a local film became a record-breaking, number one blockbuster. The surprise hit, Nang Nak (dir. Nonzee Nimibutr, 1999), is a remake of a well-known nineteenth century myth about a woman who dies in childbirth but adopts human form to be with her husband. The myth is extremely popular and has often been remade on film and television. The paper examines why Nang Nak became such a hit at home, as well as the first Thai film in recent years to have taken off on the international festival circuit, resulting in (mostly Asian regional) commercial distribution. It addresses in particular the ways in which the maker of Nang Nak consciously differentiates his film from the many previous remakes of the myth, in order to attract the kind of audiences that usually overlook Thai cinema, or worse, regard it with disdain.

The paper argues that Nang Nak's domestic success has to be considered within the context of the decisive recent shift in Thai cultural politics. The latter is itself the product of profound economic, political and social transformations, particularly since the 1970s. The transformation is best characterised in terms of the emergence and struggle for bourgeois hegemony, which, in the cultural domain, revolves around the appropriation of 'official' representations of national history, and the re-articulation of accepted, visible notions of Thainess. As part of its incorporation into the bourgeois hegemonic struggle, contemporary Thai cinema is emerging fundamentally changed, away from its previous incarnation as a popular cultural form long regarded as vulgar, to a legitimised, 'bourgeoisified' national form. In Nang Nak, this process of 'bourgeoisification' is evident on several registers: in the film's somewhat exotic portrayal of nineteenth century Siamese life, with its minute attention to period details, but also in its recasting of the romance between husband and wife, so that their relationship is ideally sexualised and individualistic. The outcome is to shift what was once a staple of the Thai B-movie horror genre into a tragic-romance, resulting in a prestige film acclaimed for its so-called authentic rendering of the past, and its articulation of 'essential' Thainess at the level of the film form. The paper concludes that, in doing so, Nang Nak seems to have become exportable.

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Dr Dina Iordanova
Centre for Mass Communication Research, University of Leicester

From Cold War Paraphernalia to Esoteric Exotica: Eastern Europe's Hard Sells

On the example of feature film, this paper will trace some of the transformations that cultural exports from the countries of the former East Bloc underwent through the 1990s, and in particular their switch from cold-war imagery to lavish exotica. In three steps, I will explore what from the former Eastern Bloc sells (and what not), and will show that often key decisions in feature filmmaking are influenced by fluctuations in the Western entertainment market demand.

I will look into three strands of the intricate interaction between those in the West (a clientele that subtly dictates the demand) and those in the East (a workforce that readily adjusts the supply). This investigation, which is meant to be a study in political economy, will cover three areas:

1) The initial interest in Cold War times paraphernalia and communist kitsch was swiftly abandoned as the Western attention moved away from the interest in Russian diplomats selling Kalashnikovs and the disgraced monuments of Dzerzhinski and Lenin littering abandoned parks.

2) A specific domestic filmmaking industry was said to have come into being in Bosnia in response to market demand for footage featuring bloodshed (mostly of newsagencies and Western TV networks). It is a trend that influenced feature filmmaking as well. I will look into the commercial side of news production and war films and will discuss the alleged 'commercialism' of filmmakers who made (and sold) films about the war.

3) Finally, I will discuss the common-sense market strategies of those who chose to stick to the tested recipe of reviving and selling the exotic inventory of the region, summarised in the commercial exploitation of items such as Drakula and Gypsies.

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Michael Keane
Creative Industries Research and Applications Centre, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane

Into Shangrila: making Survivor in the Tibetan liberated zone
This paper presents fieldwork from an ongoing large-scale study of television formats in East Asia. Following the high tide of European originated television formats (Who Wants to be a Millionaire, Survivor, Big Brother) that have swept through Western television markets, similar developments have been replicated in the East Asian region. I will discuss how some of the above formats and their marketing strategies have been successfully localised in China, SAR Hong Kong and Taiwan. I will also look at successful formats that have been originated in the region.

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Jeongmee Kim
Institute of Film Studies University of Nottingham

Billy Elliot: Promoting British Cinema in the USA
This paper shall examine the way in which the marketing of Billy Elliot (Stephen Daldry, 2000) operates in the USA. In doing so, the paper will look at, mainly, how Billy Elliot was advertised in American newspapers such as The New York Times. Taking into consideration the issue of cultural discount, the paper will also discuss how Billy Elliot places itself as a marketable product in America. When a film is shown across the international market, there is a question raised regarding the cultural discount issue in reception. Although cultural discount is viewed as a disadvantage in trading a film, equally it can be used to promote the film as shall be demonstrated through the example of Billy Elliot. It will be suggested that the marketing of Billy Elliot positions the film within cultural discount rather than being dismissed by cultural discount. The marketing of Billy Elliot in the USA is to place it in art cinema, focusing on the national and cultural origin of the film as British cinema. Despite the fact that the film is promoted and distributed through a mainstream system (Universal Studios), Billy Elliot is still perceived as art cinema through marketing. As the term art cinema does not represent indeterminate aesthetics, art cinema is a means of specialisation for promoting British cinema in the American market. Furthermore, I will argue that as British cinema has the potential to occupy more theatres in America because of the increased financial involvement of major American distribution companies in the 1990s, there is more of a need to promote British cinema as an identifiable cultural entity in the American market.

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Peter Kramer
School of English and American Studies University of East Anglia

German Nationality/Hollywood Patriotism: The Transatlantic Tales of Wolfgang Petersen, Roland Emmerich and Oskar Schindler
When Wolfgang Petersen's The Perfect Storm and Roland Emmerich's The Patriot were released in the US in July 2000, German newspaper headlines announced: 'On Independence Day, there is a showdown between German directors in US cinemas', 'Battle of the Teutons: Are German directors better US patriots?', and 'Thanks to Germany: Hollywood imports patriotism and war'. Both films were major hits in Germany and the US, adding to a long string of international hits for the two directors. Critics in the US and Germany have pointed out that many of their previous Hollywood productions are suffused with patriotism, most notably Petersen's In the Line of Fire (1993) and Air Force One (1997) and Emmerich's Independence Day (1996). Petersen has spoken of his suppressed patriotism being released in Hollywood, while Emmerich (known as 'Spielbergle' - Little Spielberg - in the German press) has denied this connection.

If it is somewhat paradoxical that Hollywood's most ardent promoters of American patriotism are Germans, then it is painfully ironic that Hollywood's first major movie about the Holocaust, Schindler's List (1993), centres on a Good German - a Nazi war profiteer no less - while also implicitly dealing with the founding of the state of Israel. Further layers of irony are added when previous attempts at producing films about Oskar Schindler are considered: the Jewish-German producer Artur Brauner failed to get the project off the ground in Germany in the 1960s; Jewish-Austrian-American Hollywood legend Billy Wilder, already in his 70s, was involved for a while in Spielberg's project; and Petersen turneddown Spielberg's offer to direct Schindler's List because he felt that as a (non-Jewish) German he was the wrong man for the job.

In this paper, I want to explore some of these paradoxes and ironies by outlining the transatlantic careers of Petersen and Emmerich, and by examining their interview statements, the themes of their films and of Schindler's List as well as the films' marketing and reception in Germany and the US. Amongst other things, this exploration will demonstrate that German filmmakers and critics are extremely sensitive with respect to their own nationality, to patriotic feelings and to the crimes of the Nazi regime - so sensitive, indeed, that certain issues can best be dealt with through the mediation of Hollywood films.

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Henrietta Lidchi
Department of Ethnography, The British Museum

SOS Eisberg: a frosty epic set in Greenland

The paper will consider the history of encounters that took place in the making of the film SoS Eisberg/Iceberg, an expensive German/American co-production which resulted in three films (including a comedy called North Pole Ahoy) made on primarily during an expedition to North West Greenland in 1932. SOS Eisberg was a Mountain Film, the exclusively German film genre developed by Dr Arnold Fanck, the expedition's leader. A geologist by training, Fanck had since the mid-twenties grown successful in his chosen metier, and gathered around himself a team of fearless and talented technical, artistic and sporty people, amongst them, the controversial Leni Riefenstahl. Mountain Films were preoccupied with nature and authenticity - filmed outdoors almost within a documentary style. They contrasted starkly with the expressionism films and the German musicals of the early twenties which were studio bound. SoS Eisberg was filmed in communities in Greenland near to whom the film crew resided. The sequences were shot with the assistance of Knud Rasmussen, the great explorer and the story retold (with a suitable happy ending) the ill-fated Wegener expedition of 1931 where the leader of expedition, Alfred Wegener, died. Some of his fellow scientists joined the 1932 expedition and were part of the crew. In this paper I shall look at the history of the film, through the text written by the German participants; the history of the encounters that lead to the making of the films and the views of contemporary cultural critics (Rockwell Kent and Peter Freuchen). I shall also consider its success through the various press reviews. The film was to be Fanck's last Mountain venture and was not as successful as was planned. It was to mark a change of direction for those participating, but as one of the first films to be made on Greenland with a commercial goal, it presents an intriguing testimony of a tri-cultural encounter.

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Katalin Lustyik
School of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Colorado, Boulder

The global adventures of Mickey Mouse and the Rugrats: The role and characteristics of global children's television channels
There is a growing global awareness that the role and nature of children's television has fundamentally changed in the past ten years. By the mid-1990s, already worth a potential 100 billion dollars a year, the global market for children's television has become one of the most crowded and competitive within the audio-visual industries. In the United Kingdom alone, there are at least fourteen separate channels offered exclusively for children today. The most popular and commercially successful global television channels targeting children, such as Disney or Nickelodeon, are each currently available in over 300 million households worldwide. After developing a market in the United States, they have gradually and aggressively expanded to Western and Northern Europe, Australia, Latin America, and more recently to Central and Eastern Europe, Asia and the Middle East. These channels not only provide almost a continuous flow of television programming, but also offer movies, magazines, online services, merchandise, clothing, theme parks, reaching into nearly every facet of children's lives. Nickelodeon, for example, similar to MTV (also owned by Viacom), is often called an 'unparalleled brand-building machine' with localized channels, the Nick toys and the Rugrats movies. In addition to Nickelodeon's innovative marketing strategies, another key to the network's global market penetration and future growth potential seems to lie in its ability to customize, 'glocalize' content to appeal to local youth, as well as in the company's willingness to invest in innovative programming for children. This paper, as part of a broader study of the globalization of children's cultures, examines, on the one hand, the role and characteristics of global children's televisions, as they become an increasingly dominant element of indigenous children's cultures in many parts of the world; and on the other hand, the role and characteristics of local and traditional children's television.

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Susan P. Mains
Department of Geography and Geology, The University of the West Indies-Mona, Jamaica

Paradise Lost? Film, Mobility and Jamaican Identities
The influence of large-scale film production and centralised distribution systems in mainstream cinema has frequently resulted in limited accessibility to indigenous productions outwith the Hollywood system (socially, economically and spatially). The political economy of mainstream media has had a significant impact on the type and form of films that are exported to various locations throughout the world. These systems of trade recreate and reproduce specific social cartographies through visual media and through the ways in which they are translated, discussed and challenged. Images of the Caribbean, and in particular Jamaica, for example, have often been based on idealised representations of a mythical retreat to a distant island. Within such narratives of 'Jamaicanness' limited opportunity is available to interrogate the complex socio-spatial relations that exist within the country, the economic difficulties that are negotiated on a daily basis, and the contrasting representations of the island as both a tourist space and a post-colonial politically contentious context.

In this paper I will examine the means by which specific film and television representations of Jamaica have both reinforced and challenged dominant narratives of the island as a space of retreat and as 'separate' from processes of globalization. I will analyze specific images in order to illustrate the means by which externally produced island representations have come under increasing scrutiny, while at the same time a dependence on tourism has necessitated a readily available image of a 'general' (and 'safe') Jamaica. In addition, I will illustrate that films, such as The Harder They Come and Dancehall Queen provide important moments for interrogating mythologised representations of Jamaica and moving towards a more diverse and complex understanding of place and identity.

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Justin Malbon
Barrister and Senior Lecturer, Law School, Griffith University, Australia

Pirate spotting: Defining formats legally speaking

National and international broadcasting environments are becoming ever more competitive, causing broadcasters to have increasing reason to seek to guarantee success for new television programs. This is focusing attention on the need for legal protection for television formats. The law, however, has no concept of a 'TV format' which in itself is capable of legal protection. A number of commentators who lament the lack of legal protection tend to assume the term TV format has an agreed meaning.

An essential preliminary step in gaining legal reform is to gain consensus on which kinds of program ideas and techniques deserve protection and which do not. Debates about the protection of formats are suffused with cultural and political value. They raise questions about the balance between free expression and creativity on the one hand and protecting and rewarding the investment of time, creativity and money into the creation of a commercially valuable product on the other. It also raises questions about the appropriateness of large production houses having the power (and the legal capacity) to effectively monopolise the process for the creation and production of formats.

This paper will highlight some of the key issues in the debate about the legal recognition of formats. It will refer to experiences regarding the protection of IT and the patenting of genes to analogise the issues at stake.

For the panel on Television Program Formats to be chaired by Dr Albert Moran of Griffith University

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Dr Paul McDonald
Reader in Film and Television Studies, University of Surrey Roehampton

Themed Television Channels in Europe: Specialized Entertainment Services and Imagined Lifestyle Communities
During the 1990s the television market in Europe witnessed significant developments as the number of cable households doubled and satellite households increased tenfold. These conditions provided foundations for the growth of a multichannel television economy in the region. One effect of this change was the proliferation of themed television channels. In 1991, 145 such channels were in operation, but by 2000 that number had increased to 1,013. These channels operated at national and pan-European levels, running services across a range of specialized categories, including sport, news, adult entertainment, movies, music and shopping services.

The paper examines Europe's multichannel economy and the expansion of themed television channels. First, the paper will look at trends in the provision of themed channels in Europe during the 1990s, considering the growth in particular channel categories and identifying national and pan-European developments in this sector. Secondly, concentrating on pan-European channels, the paper will consider the issue of whether transnational channels are distancing television audiences from national television services. It will be argued that while audiences continue to show strong preferences for national terrestrial services, the effect of themed channels on certain demographic categories - particularly children, teenagers and young adults - has been to reconfigure audiences around leisure and lifestyle choices. It will be argued that the multichannel economy is increasingly creating a division within audiences between their relationship to national broadcasting services and identification with imagined pan-regional lifestyle communities.

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John McMurria
Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Cinema Studies, New York University

Discovering the World: Globalization and Television Documentary

The television landscape, once a province of nationally organized systems of dissemination, regulation, finance, production and consumption, is increasingly contoured by national industry deregulation and global media conglomeration. Faith in market competition and new digital technologies drive cultural policy as pay-TV channel proliferation offers the promise of limitless choice. As domestic audiences fragment across these channels, programming networks such as TNT, the Cartoon Network, MTV, and the Discovery Channel have expanded internationally. This paper considers this emerging global television economy through the case of the on-going international expansion of the Discovery Network.

The Discovery Network produces and commissions programming for its 32 regional feeds that span 143 countries. Discovery's documentaries are often guided by high-concept marketing imperatives that include dramatic reenactments, singular narratives and cgi effects at the expense of multi-perspective accounts of natural and human histories. Formats are made malleable for dubbing through excising onscreen commentators, or they are made in template form, allowing certain segments to be filled by local onscreen commentators. But political parameters are placed on these globally circulating documentaries as Discovery's President of Worldwide programming has made clear: 'I'm not sure Indonesians would care about Watergate or would even begin to understand the passion that surrounded that issue [and] in terms of global events, it's hard to do a film about human rights abuses in Tibet.'

This essay considers the localizing tactics for feeds that include 24 languages, as well as the harmonizing commodity processes of global brand imaging. While niche channels such as Discovery offer more narrowly focused special-interest programming, these global audience maximizing imperatives foster risk-reducing strategies that set particular limits on political engagement. Through a better understanding of these emerging global commodity processes in documentary television within commercial multi-channel television systems, we might take pause in light of the neo-liberal paradigms that have propelled media globalization.

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Dr. Albert Moran
School of Film, Media and Cultural Studies, Griffith University, Australia

Changing Power relations in International Television Industries: From Factory to Franchise
While power relations in international television industries are constantly in flux, nevertheless, they are presently undergoing significant change. The face of television program production is being reorganised at both the national and the international levels. In an earlier stage of television, broadcasters determined to guarantee their program supply by producing television programs in-house. This system was displaced by one of outsourcing. Now, following further changes in financing, production, distribution and marketing arrangements, companies and profits are no longer solely organised around the making of TV programs. Instead, they increasingly depend on the creation of rights. Program format trade systematises the circulation of international 'brand names' and the onset of franchising in international TV industries. This paper explores these changes and their significance, focussing particularly on the international marketing of Big Brother.

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Graham Murdock
Loughborough University

The Political Economy of Fraternity: The Cultural Commons in the Age of Convergence
The continuing convergence of telecommunications, computing and the cultural industries, demonstrated most forcefully in the on-going integration of broadcasting and the Internet , poses problems for both the analytical models developed within the political economy of communications and their ethical underpinnings. It prompts us to focus on the continuing contest between three cultural economies - commodities, gifts and public goods. Historically, each has been associated with a particular ethical principal. Commodites have been presented as a sphere of personal liberty (as configured by market mechanisms); public goods as a sphere of equality (as embodied in the operating principles of public cultural institutions, including public broadcasting), and gifts as a sphere of fraternity (grounded in an ethos of reciprocity).

The strong maketising impetus of the last two decades has massively increased the scale and scope of commodification within the cultural sphere and installed cosmopolitan consumerism as perhaps the most powerful meta- ideology of the age .At the same time, the convergence of public cultural institutions and the internet opens up opportunities to develop new relations between gift economies and public goods and launch cultural initiatives that can support a philosophy of cosmopolitan citizenship. For most commentators this implies the construction of a new kind of public sphere. In contrast, this paper argues that a revivified conception of a cultural commons offers a more useful starting point and goes on to explore the possibilities and problems of institutionalising this ideal.

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Lúcia Nagib
State University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil

The Rebirth and International Circulation of Brazilian Cinema Since the Mid 1990s
From the mid 1990s the new Audiovisual Law, based on the principle of fiscal incentive, caused a sudden boom which was called the 'Rebirth of Brazilian Cinema'. If between 1990 and 1992, the dark period under President Collor, film production was reduced to near zero, between 1995 and 2000, 150 long feature films were produced and, between 1994 and 2000, 55 new filmmakers appeared in the country. This significant increase was accompanied by a wider reception of the films, both in Brazil and abroad. Between 1998 and 1999 alone, Brazilian films received around 100 prizes abroad, the most important of them being the Golden Bear for best film and best actress awarded to Central Station, in 1998, at the Berlin Film Festival. Between 1997 and 1999, three Brazilian films were nominated for the Academy Award as best foreign film. As film production flourished, new aesthetic tendencies emerged, carrying an accurate image of Brazil and its social characteristics in the same way Cinema Novo once did in the politicized 1960s.

However, if this boom made room for new talents and ideas, it did not guarantee space for them on the screens, in Brazil or abroad. The Audiovisual Law did increase the production, but it did not provide for distribution and exhibition, which were left over to the market's wild laws and the irresistible pressure of American cinema. Besides, recent Brazilian films often present marked auteurist features and a desire for originality which can result in master-pieces, but also reduce their commercial chances. With the exception of some openly popular comedy genres, recent Brazilian cinema seems to be destined for the art niche, or, more frequently, for early oblivion. This paper aims to analyse the penetration and reception of recent Brazilian films in the internal and external market, articulating aesthetic characteristics with factors of national and international policies of distribution, in order to evaluate its situation in the global scene.

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Steve Neale
Sheffield Hallam University

Exchanging Adventure: British, American and UnAmerican Involvement in TV Costume Adventure Series in the 1950s
In the late 1940s and 1950s costume adventure as a genre was the site of a complex series of exchanges between the film and television industries in America and Britain. During the course of these exchanges, Britain`s new commercial TV channel, ITV, commissioned, broadcast and successfully exported to America such series as The Adventures of Robin Hood, The Adventures of Sir Lancelot, The Buccaneers, Sword of Freedom, Ivanhoe and Richard the Lionheart. Some of these series involved American as well as British personnel. Some involved American as well as British companies. And some involved Americans who had been branded as 'UnAmerican' during the course of anti-Communist hearings in Hollywood in the late 1940s. Looking at the varying mix of American, UnAmerican and British involvement in some of these series, this paper will seek to question any straightforward conceptions of 'the national' and of 'the indigenous'.

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Geoffrey Nowell-Smith
University of Luton

Export Quality: Italian producers' search for wider markets, 1950-70
After 1945 Europe's cinemas were faced with the problem of how to reconstruct their industries while facing unprecednted competition from the deluge of Hollywood films now free to enter the market. Their responses were threefold: protection, co-operation, and counter-attack. Protection (effective from 1946) took the form of levies and screen quotas designed to help indigenous production at the expense of exhibition; co-operation (effective fom about 1950) led to market-sharing co-production agreements between European countries. But what of the counter-attack? How did the Europeans envisage countering the largely one-way flow of American films onto European screens. This paper will review the options open to continental European producers and distributors in the 1950s and 60s hoping to break into the American market and the contradictory outcomes of some of the strategies pursued.

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María Luisa Ortega and Marina Díaz
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

Latin America Cinema in the 90s: Cultural Identity and International Visibility

Four decades ago, the New Latin American Cinema movement was born as a semi-institutionalised form of a cultural identity project by which spaces of international visibility were created for the cinema made in the region. Cinema became a privileged locus for definition of national identities in a neo-colonial situation, for an ideological, social and political struggle against imperialism which was shared by compromised filmmaker from almost all Latin American countries and that made sense of a such trans-national cultural enterprise. The cinema produced under this movement showed very different aesthetic and address strategies, but the films had in common thematic and representational features that identified them as 'Latin American' products. These identity signs were very different from those of the golden age of Latin American national cinemas which created national genres based in local music and cultural traditions and, in doing so, generated a kind of trans-national, Spanish global market, and a wide popular success among Spanish publics that challenged Northern hegemony. These 1930s national cinemas got to go beyond the local to construct cultural references with which different national, Latin publics identified.

Things have changed a lot from these time and cinema production frameworks. The adjective 'Latin' has galvanized very new meanings and it has become a label to name and sale very different cultural products and industries, among them cinema and a sort of trans-national star system. In this context, and moving across genres and audio-visual formats, our paper will analyses Latin American cinema made in the 1990s from two complementary perspectives and methodological approaches. On one hand, we will focus on its more frequent topics and representation patterns in order to study what images and imaginaries of the 'Latin' the recent filmic production constructs and casts: how it represents Latin identity/identities in the framework of local-global tension; how it uses common strategies to represent the role of cinema and media in collective memory and identity construction from a national or a trans-national perspective; how it deals with gendered images, etc. On the other hand, we will analyse the grids of international visibility for this cinema -mainly international festivals and distribution patterns- in order to think about how the exportable 'Latin' image is constructed from these outside perspectives and what identity elements are rejected from this category.

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Dr Duncan Petrie
Reader in Film, University of Exeter

How Scottish is it?: The indigenous Cultural Engagement and International Circulation of Recent Scottish Film
One of the most interesting developments in British cinema in the 1990s was the emergence of an identifiable Scottish cinema. While the most high profile example was Trainspotting, a film fully funded by Channel Four and aimed at an international market, many other productions have been nurtured by new sources of indigenous finance administered by institutions such as Scottish Screen and as such have been regarded by critics as constituting a new cinematic engagement with Scotland and Scottish culture. Yet at the same time a number of these films have performed well at International Film Festivals, including winning a number of awards, and have subsequently found audiences outside Scotland. This paper will consider recent developments in Scotland with a particular focus on the dominant kinds of stories and images that have been produced in Scotland and subsequently 'exported' in recent years, and the role played by Institutions such as Scottish Screen - which administers lottery finance for film development and production and runs a number of short film schemes - in the development of a film culture that in ambition at least attempts to address indigenous cultural concerns and reach a wide international audience. Scottish sources of finance are also beginning to attract the attention of certain European producers, particular from Scandanavia, keen to develop English language production in a way that also suggests certain interesting cultural connections with a northern European context. Among the films to be examined in some detail are Breaking the Waves (Lars von Trier, 1996), My Name is Joe (Ken Loach, 1998) Orphans (Peter Mullan, 1999), Ratcatcher (Lynn Ramsay, 1999) and Late Night Shopping (Saul Metzstein, 2001).

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Syed Mizanur Rahman
TREE Foundation Ltd, Dhaka

Interactive Video for Awareness

From the government to NGOs, many institutions and organizations have been undertaking numerous awareness raising and informative programmes regarding health care. Interestingly, in comparison with the publicity and programmes undertaken to combat AIDS, smoking habits, drug culture and child health problems, little attention has been paid to reproductive health care. One of the reasons is some cultural restriction that made direct discussion on sex and reproductive health issues not agreeable, especially in mass media.

The common modes adopted for awareness raising include poster, leaflet, seminar, workshop, on-spot awareness packages, street theatre, radio and television spots and shows etc. Moreover, all the TV shows tend either to be informative (some times, triangle) or dramatic (often too much to be credible enough). Thus they do not reflect the real situation, nor do they include the public perception or questions. They lack proper communication.

Interactive Video for Awareness (IVA):
Assessing the nature and status of TV programmes for promotional purposes, TREE (Theatre for Research Education and Empowerment) intends to prepare a series of programmes for social and health awareness. These videos would be interactive, associating the performers and the audience (the details are following). The programmes would be telecast in serial through any TV Channel.

Production concept:
Unlike customary programmes, Interactive Video for Awareness (IVA) puts primary emphasis on interaction. Each programme is broadly divided into two phases:
-The first phase is a drama, prepared and performed after popular folk fashion, on a select issue.
-The second phase consists of a post-performance informal discussion session among the performers and the audience around. This session includes questions from the audience's part which are answered by the performers, general discussion about the audience's understanding of the issue and so on. The mode is necessarily of impromptu kind, while a portion of the audience being briefed beforehand so as to secure the proper way of discussion and maintain time-effectiveness. Spontaneous questions from the audience help clarify the issues (that are highlighted in the drama) to a satisfying extent It also strengthens spectator's (both TV and on-spot) emotional attachment with the programme which is very important for any awareness programme.

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Dr Michael Richardson
Dept of Anthropology & Sociology, SOAS, University of London

Between Expectation and Wonder: The experience of viewing films cross-culturally
'World cinema' is now an established genre, given its own particular category at film festivals. But what sorts of expectations are being formed by categorising certain films in this way? Does it involve a new form of exoticism, relying on an implied theory of the indigenous as an object being set up for contemplation by Western audiences, or is a genuine arena for the consideration of cross-cultural understanding being established?

This paper will look at some of the social determinants of the relation between images and their reception by viewers in the context of wider debates about the nature of otherness and the need for dialogue between cultures. It will consider the question of who is speaking to whom and in what terms when we view films from very different cultural contexts and what are processes of identification and disavowal that are being established. Is a platform for a genuine dialogue between cultures being established in world cinema or are we simply succumbing to an exoticism that congeals different cultural experiences within a form that makes them susceptible to incorporation into globalising processes of culture?

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Tom Ryall
Professor of Film History, Sheffield Hallam University

acuous Internationalism' - Anthony Asquith and the 'mid-Atlantic film' of the 1960s
'One is forced to wonder whether the British industry has not lost something [...] if it has not exchanged autonomy and the chance to manifest its own culture for the appetizing appeal of financial success with many 'mid-Atlantic' productions.' Thomas Guback (1967)

During the 1950s the major Hollywood studios shifted some of their production from the traditional Los Angeles base to a variety of European countries including the UK - a phenomenon usually known as 'runaway production'. Subsequently the term was joined by others including the 'mid-Atlantic' picture and the 'international' film, terms which hinted at the cultural consequences of this geographical shift. By the 1960s, Hollywood companies were investing substantially in the British film industry not simply utilising studio facilities and technical staff to make Hollywood 'runaways' but also establishing British firms to make 'British films' designed for international audiences and financed largely from US sources. The American film industry in effect became the major financier for the British cinema with corresponding though at times somewhat elusive consequences for cultural autonomy and indigenous cinematic distinctiveness. A long and varied list of British titles of the 1960s including The World of Suzie Wong, Tom Jones, From Russia with Love, A Hard Day's Night, The Guns of Navarone, Lawrence of Arabia, Becket, Lord Jim, The Night of the Generals, A Man for All Seasons, The Lion in Winter, and Women in Love, can be traced in financial terms to US sources. However, all were 'British films' at least in legal terms, and many of them reflected aspects of British culture and history, suggesting a complex relationship between the financial origins of a film and its cultural identity.

The long established team of producer Anatole de Grunwald, director Anthony Asquith, and writer Terence Rattigan made two 'international' films for the American major MGM's British subsidiary company during the 1960s - The V.I.P.s and The Yellow Rolls-Royce. These will be used as case studies to consider the consequences of the specific relationship between finance and culture established by the American presence in the British cinema of the 1960s and notion of the 'international' or 'mid-Atlantic' film as embodied in the form and content of the two films.

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John Sedgwick
University of North London

Gaumont British in America, 1934-36
In 1934, British Gaumont - a leading player in the remarkable resurgence of the production sector of the British film industry following the Cinematograph Act of 1927 - launched an ambitious strategy to market its films in the U.S. However, rather than using the distribution network of the one of the Hollywood majors, as say London Films did with United Artists, Gaumont British decided to develop and invest in its own in-house operation. It did so because of the confidence that the corporation's executives, and particularly Michael Balcon, had in its product and their concern that the very best efforts should be made to ensure its widespread diffusion. This paper charts this commercial venture by recourse to two resources: the Michael Balcon Special Collection housed at the BFI and the weekly box-office returns of the sample of first-run cinemas across the U.S. found in the trade journal Variety. Although the venture failed, critically wounding the production wing of Gaumont British, the analysis conducted here focuses on the ex ante conjectures and perceptions of the organisation as it embarked upon the venture and the actual critical and box-office reception of its films.

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Professor John Sinclair
Victoria University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia

'The Hollywood of Latin America': Miami as Regional Centre in Television Trade

Over the last decade, there has emerged a certain discourse about Miami as 'the Hollywood of Latin America', or even as 'the cultural capital', not just of Latin America, but also of the Spanish-speaking population of the United States. This paper examines the basis and extent of Miami's status specifically within the international trade in the production and distribution of Spanish-language television programs and services in the Americas as a whole geolinguistic region. What appears to be unique about Miami is the combination of cultural as well as locational and economic factors which it offers the rapidly internationalizing Spanish-language television industry. As such, it provides an interesting case for evaluating the relative significance of cultural vis-à-vis economic factors in the making of such an industry, and for apprehending their fusion. Furthermore, in an era steeped in globalization's dictum that 'time and space have disappeared', Miami serves as a reminder of the degree to which geospatial features still exert their gravitational pull upon the much-vaunted 'deterritorialization' of communication media, as well as of the importance of regional factors in modulating globalization processes. Of particular interest is the role of Miami as the locus of production, distribution and exchange for both the Spanish-speaking television industry in the US, and the major television companies of Latin America.

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Dr Jeanette Steemers
De Montfort University

Selling British Television
After the USA, Britain is the second largest exporter of television programmes both in terms of volume and value - albeit a distant second. Sales grew especially as new commercial channels with low budgets and a huge demand for television programmes, emerged in the major markets of Western Europe and the United States in the 1980s. However, as these new channels have become more established, sales of completed programmes have become more difficult. This is due to the fact that in more mature markets, broadcasters have sought to raise their profile and improve their appeal to audiences through domestically produced programmes in valuable peaktime slots. Even in the US, traditional stalwarts of British drama programming such as PBS and cable channels like A&E are seeking to increase levels of domestic drama at the expense of 'classic' British drama. This more competitive environment has forced those who wish to sell their programmes overseas to adopt a range of strategies, which vary according to the type of programming on offer, the overseas market being targeted, and the position of the British producer in the UK domestic marketplace. Based on interviews with a range of UK producers/distributors, this paper offers a case study in the development and implementation of strategies designed to enhance British television exports. First the paper will examine what factors inhibit or promote exports in the major markets of Western Europe and the USA. Next it will consider what strategies British exporters are adopting to overcome barriers and enhance performance. Finally it will consider the impact of these strategies on domestic production. Underlying the research is the perception of a basic tension between the culturally specific demands of the domestic television market, and the industrial imperative of exporters whose products need to satisfy a wider range of tastes and national circumstances.

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Last modified 1 May, 2002;